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    symptoms of diabetic nephropathy


    What is diabetic nephropathy?

    Kidney disease that results from diabetes is called as diabetic nephropathy. This is the most common cause of kidney failure. Almost 1/3 rd of the people with diabetes will develop diabetic nephropathy.People with diabetes and kidney disease will suffer worse than people with diabetes alone. This is because people with diabetes will have other medical complications such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, atherosclerosis. People with diabetes will also have other kidney diseases such as bladder infection & nerve damage to the bladder.



    Kidney disease with type 1 diabetes is slightly different from type 2 diabetes.

    Kidney disease begin rarely 10 years after the diagnosis of diabetes in case of type 1, whereas in type 2 diabetes some people will already have kidney disease by the time they are diagnosed with diabetes.

    What are the symptoms of diabetic nephropathy?

    Often, there are no symptoms with diabetic nephropathy. But, as the kidney conditions worsen the symptoms may arise. It includes:

    • Swelling of the feet, leg, and face
    • Difficulty in sleeping or concentrating
    • Poor appetite
    • Nausea & vomiting
    • Itching and extremely dry skin
    • Drowsiness
    • Abnormalities in the heart rhythm due to increased levels of potassium
    • Muscle twitching

    As kidney damage progresses, your kidneys cannot remove the waste from your blood. The waste then builds up in your body and can reach poisonous levels, a condition known as uremia. People with uremia are often confused and occasionally become comatose.

    How is diabetic nephropathy diagnosed?

    Certain blood tests that look for specific blood chemistry are used to diagnose kidney damage. It can also be detected by finding protein in the urine. There are treatments that help slow down the progression to kidney failure. This is the reason that you are advised to test the urine every year if you are a diabetic patient.

    How is diabetic nephropathy treated?

    The 2 main things to slow the progression to diabetic nephropathy are

    • Lowering blood pressure
    • Maintaining blood sugar

    Some medicines called angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors can help slow down the progression of kidney damage. Although ACE inhibitors including ramipril, quinapril, and lisinopril are usually used to treat high blood pressure and other medical problems, they are often given to people with diabetes to prevent complications, even if their blood pressure is normal. If a person has side effects from taking ACE inhibitors, another class of drugs called angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) can often be given instead.

    If not treated the kidneys will continue to fail and larger amounts of proteins can be detected in urine. Advanced kidney failure requires treatment with dialysis or a kidney transplant.

    How does dialysis help in recovery from diabetic nephropathy?

    Dialysis is the treatment that filters and purifies the blood using a machine. When kidneys stop functioning efficiently, dialysis is the only option. This helps to keep the body in balance when the kidneys don’t do their job. Dialysis is a procedure to remove waste products and excess fluids from the blood when the kidneys stop working properly.

    There are 2 types of dialysis:

    •  Hemodialysis
    •  Peritoneal dialysis

    Hemodialysis: your blood is put through a filter outside the body, cleaned and then returned to you. This is done either at a dialysis facility or at home.

    Peritoneal dialysis:

    Who needs dialysis?

    If you have chronic kidney disease then you will need dialysis or kidney transplant at some point. Some will choose dialysis even before they have the symptoms of kidney failure such as nausea, fatigue, swelling or throwing up.

    When you should start dialysis depends on your age, energy level, overall health and how willing you are to commit to a treatment plan.

    How long will you need dialysis?

    It depends. In some cases, kidney failure may be a temporary problem and dialysis can be stopped when your kidneys recover. But often, someone with kidney failure will need a kidney transplant. It’s not always possible to carry out a kidney transplant straight away, so dialysis may be needed until a suitable donor’s kidney becomes available. If a kidney transplant isn’t suitable for you, for example, because you’re not well enough to have a major operation, dialysis may be needed for the rest of your life.

    What happens during dialysis process?

    Haemodialysis: it is the most common type of dialysis and the most type of

    dialysis that people are aware of. During the procedure, a tube is attached to a needle in the arm. Blood passes through the tube and through an external machine and filters it before it passes through the arm through another tube. This is usually carried out 3 times a week and each session lasts for about 4 hours. Peritoneal dialysis: this uses the inside lining of your abdomen to filter rather than an external machine. Like the kidneys, the peritoneum contains a number of blood vessels making it a useful filtering device. Before the treatment starts, an incision is made near your belly button and a thin tube called catheter is inserted through it. This is left in place permanently. The fluid is pumped into the peritoneal cavity through the catheter. As the blood passes through the cavity, wastes and other fluids are drawn out of the blood and into the dialysis fluid. Changing the fluids usually, takes about 30-40 minutes and needs to be repeated 4 times a day. If you prefer, it can be done overnight when you sleep. What if I want to stop dialysis? This treatment should probably maintain or improve the quality of your life. But if you wish to stop it, you can do it anytime. If you wish to stop then talk to your doctor about it and also get to know what other treatment options can help you survive better. Changes to your diet and lifestyle can help improve the quality of your life.

    How does kidney transplant help in recovery from diabetic nephropathy? A kidney transplant is a process that involves the transfer of a healthy kidney from the donor to a person (recipient) who has little or no kidney function at all. The main role of the kidneys is to filter waste products from the blood and send it out of the body. If the kidneys fail to do this function, then the waste products get piled up which can cause life-threatening situations.

    There are basically two types of donors;

    •  Living donors
    • Deceased donors

    Living donors:

    A living donor may be a family member, a friend or any person who is willing to do donate their kidney. A person needs only one healthy kidney to lead a healthy life.

    Deceased donors:

    A deceased donor is someone who has died recently. The recipient may have to undergo a series of tests to see how well the donor kidney matches with your tissue or blood type. A close match in tissue or blood type will reveal that your body is ready to accept the new kidney provided you don’t suffer from other chronic diseases such as heart or lung infections.

    The kidney transplantation procedure:

    It takes about 3 hours for the kidney transplant surgery. During the surgery, the donor kidney is placed in your lower abdomen and the blood vessel from the donor kidney is connected to the arteries and veins in your body. The ureter from the donor kidney is connected to the bladder. The new kidney then produces urine and begins to filter and remove waste from the body. In most cases, the diseased or damaged kidney is not removed unless it is highly infected or the person has kidney cancer.

    A kidney transplant is a crucial surgery followed by a wide range of potential risks. The short-term risks include blood clots and other infections whereas the long- term risks include diabetes or increased risk of infection which can be controlled by medications. The person who had kidney transplant must undergo regular health check-ups.

    Living with a kidney transplant;

    Once the person has undergone a kidney transplant surgery, he or she has to maintain a healthy lifestyle in order to reduce the complications. Therefore it is advised that

    • You don’t smoke
    •  You eat a healthy diet
    •  You lose weight if you are overweight or obese
    •  Make efforts to reduce your developing infections

    How long does kidney transplants last?

    The duration of a transplanted kidney depends on many factors. Some of which are:

    • Whether or not, the kidney came from a living donor
    •  How well the donor kidney matched with the tissue or blood type of the recipient
    • The age and overall health of the person

    The average kidney survival timings are as follows;

    •  1 year- about 95%
    •  5 years- about 85%-90%
    •  10 years-about 75%

    If you have a kidney transplant failure then you may have to go in for a dialysis unless and until you undergo another kidney transplant surgery.

    The possible risks of a kidney transplant surgery:

    • Severe infection
    •  Rejection of donor kidney
    •  Bleeding
    •  Failure of donor kidney
    •  Reaction to anesthesia used for the surgery

    Top 10 hospitals to treat kidney-related problems:


    This is one of the best hospitals in Mumbai for the treatment of diseases related to kidneys. It has the latest technology to treat patients, special transplant wards and houses of specially trained nurses. It also has a team of best medical professionals and doctors to treat kidney diseases. This hospital also performs peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis to treat patients.

    ADDRESS: Rao Saheb Achutrao Patwardhan Marg, Four Bunglows, Andheri (W), Mumbai – 400053


    Apollo hospitals are famous all over India and the world. They have a number of branches and one such is the Indraprasath Apollo hospital located in Delhi. It does about 10,000 kidney treatments and about 400 kidney transplants a year.

    ADDRESS: Sarita Vihar, Delhi-Mathura Road,New Delhi – 110076 (INDIA)


    It has a special department for urology and treats various diseases related to kidneys, bladders, and prostate. It has a team of dedicated and well-experienced doctors who can perform kidney transplant procedure. They are known to use less surgical methods that are a lot more painless and affordable.

    ADDRESS:  Medanta-The Medicity, Sector – 38, Gurgaon, Haryana 122 001, India


    It is a government aided hospital and has run about 1000 renal transplants. It uses the latest technology and surgical methods to perform the operations. The success rate of the transplants in this hospital is 70- 80%.

    ADDRESS: Address: No 1, Opposite Central Railway Station,

    Evr Periyar Salai, Park Town,

    Chennai – 60000


    The Christian Medical College Vellore is the best-known hospital for treating kidney diseases. It has 2 different departments Nephrology 1 & Nephrology 2. It has many facilities such as peritoneal dialysis, hemodialysis, renal transplants, patient education, biopsy, diagnostic tests and nephrology research.

    ADDRESS: Department of Nephrology,

    Christian Medical College,

    Vellore, 632004, Tamil Nadu, 


    It is one of the best hospitals in India which is known for treating kidney problems such as chronic kidney disease, acute kidney disease, and hypertensive diabetic kidney disease. They have a dialysis unit that can accommodate 65 patients at a time. It has successfully performed 214 transplants since 2008.

    ADDRESS:  MIOT Hospitals, 4/112, Mount Poonamalle Road,

    Manapakkam, Chennai – 600 089,

    Tamil Nadu, INDIA


    It has gained its fame from a number of successful kidney treatment procedures and transplants. It has conducted over 200 kidney transplants and over 18000 hemodialyses. It is best known for stone removal and hemodialysis. This is the first hospital in Ins=dia to use steroid free kidney transplants. This has reduced the complications after the surgery.

    ADDRESS: 738-B Puliakulam Road, Coimbatore 641 045, Tamil Nadu, India


    It is the first hospital in India to have performed cadaver kidney transplant. It has a team of dedicated and experienced doctors who have performed about 1000 transplants successfully. The best thing about this hospital is that they provide some of the best treatment options at affordable prices.

    ADDRESS:  98, HAL Airport Road, Bangalore – 560 017


    It is best known for treating kidney diseases and kidney transplants. It

    provides some of the best facilities and is accredited to NABH & JCI.

    ADDRESS:  65, 1st Main Road, Seshadripuram,

    Bangalore- 560020, Karnataka

    1) AIIMS:

    It is the best-known hospital for kidney treatments in India. It performs 3 successful transplants per week. The government also provides financial supports for patients who cannot afford the treatment.

    ADDRESS: Safdarjung Enclave, Aurobindo Marg, Ansari Nagar, Delhi- 110029

    Top 10 nephrologist in India:

    • Dr. C.V. Singh Yadav – dialysis, transplant P.D., CAPD


    • Dr. Prakash Ugale – D.N.B Nephrology
    •  Dr. Anil Kumar Saxena –
    •  Dr. Avinash Ignatius –M.D medicine, DM Nephrology (AIIMS)
    •  Dr. P.M. Sohal


    • Dr. Pradeep Deshpande- M.D, D.N.B – KIMS Hospital
    •  Dr. Imtiyaz Ahmad Wani- M.B.B.S., M.D, D.M. – SKIMS Hospital
    • Dr. Topoti Mukherjee- M.B.B.S., M.D, D.N.B, fellowship in transplantation NEPHROLIFE
    • Dr. Jayant Thomas Mathew
    • Amala Institute of Medical Sciences

    To get more details about these hospitals and the nephrologists you can contact us anytime on our official website or call us at our helpline number +918010555444. We are here to guide you through your difficult times.